Pros and Cons of receiving a scholarship

may be wondering if it's all getting a scholarship cracked up to be. Of course, it's always good to get the money that you can not be expected to pay back, but there is a downside to getting a scholarship. As it turns out there are pluses and minuses receiving scholarship money. The obvious plus is that you get the money that you need for school, you do not have to take the form of a loan. This money goes toward things such as school tuition, room and board, books, supplies, computers, and anything else related.

You certainly do not want to look a gift horse in the mouth, but there are some things that you can expect from them to receive the scholarship money and keep each receive half of the year. Many scholarship award must be minimum requirements, it is expected that in order to award the first place, but it may also be necessary to maintain the above minimum each semester it is expected to keep growing. What is good for a scholarship that is usually not a one. You can renew it for as long as you go to college, depending on whether you keep your grades, and meet all other requirements. Some scholarships want to maintain a certain GPA, while others are expected to participate in extracurricular activities or volunteer hours put in in order to get your money.

If you come to rely on grant money, but I have a bad half of the year, it is financially devastating revoked or do not comply with the next half of the year to which the money.

When compared, scholarship generally have more strings attached, but because it compensates renewable. When you receive your support, it is often a one-time fee. If you want to receive it back again and again you need to get adopted. Beauty aids is that they rarely need anything outside of the application. If the tendering and awarding the grant, the money just shows up either by direct deposit or check. The scholarships are not only proves that you are eligible, you should check the school to make sure it still holds the end of the deal, and all the money should be sent directly to the college to pay for things. You only get the leftovers do with as you please.

Of course, it is better to get a scholarship like that, you do not get a scholarship. Just do not be surprised if you find out all the other things that come with getting one. It is often glamorized and think of as the Szent Grál of free money for college. Some scholarships can cause stress in the form, while the minimum requirements. It's up to you to decide whether or not it's worth.

Source by Nic Lino

The curl Toe – Causes and Treatment

among many, that lead to changes in the shape or position, the toe of the curly nose stands out from the plurality of individual deformity being treated somewhat differently standardized toe deformity (as a hammertoe). This article discusses this unique deformity, and how to manage it effectively.

Due to various reasons (but mainly because one of the arch structure), toes develop gradually change shape over many years standing and walking. The most common change is the development of hammertoe in which the first joint, or "knuckle" pull the nose up until the middle toe bends downward. Although rarely painful in and of itself a hammertoe deformity allows the excessive pressure on the top of a shallow shoes onto your toes. The corn develops on the skin when the toe joint is outstanding, eventually leading to pain. The other change is that often develops a rotation toe next to the little toe. Often referred to as curly toes, this state is a combination of a hammertoe deformity, and the actual internal rotation of the toes. As a result of abnormal toe position is usually a very painful corn due to which the pressure in the toe of the shoe, where the nose bone just outstanding thanks to the toe rotation. The difference between the corn which in this state, as opposed to a normal hammertoe that this corn is less at the top of the nose, as it is more along the side of the toe. The affected skin is still the "top" of the nose technically, but the corn displayed on this site, because the top of the toe was turning the page. In this case, not only the top of the shoe irritates the corn, but the side effects are not well. A second sample of maize can form along the sides of the outer edge of the nail, wherein the pressure builds due to the ground, that the toe rotation. This maize is often confused because of an ingrown toenail is this proximity to the edge of the nail. Remove the sides of the nail in this case, it can only temporarily relieve the symptoms, such as nasal pressure allows the rotation of corn, so again, despite the removal of the nail edge.

the little toe is not the only toe to curl inward. This is also seen in other smaller toes, while the fourth toe (the one next to the little toe) is the primary toe outside of the little toe to develop this. However, this is not the toes tend to be because of the kind of painful corn as the little toe is the same in the unique position of the foot on the outside of the little toe.

fairly straight forward treatment of this condition. A conservative or living with the condition, or one of the toes surgically straightened out. Mild self-care application flatten the corn after corn emery board or pumice stone bathing, it can cause pain and limit. Tape the toe has limited benefits turned out position and can actually cause more discomfort. Using a broader and deeper shoe appears to be the most benefit to reduce the external pressure on the toes. Toe cushioning gel, foam or felt pads may provide some relief, although it should be applied daily. Local corn removers should be avoided because they contain acids that can potentially damage the skin surrounding the good skin and create a chemical burn on your toes.

surgery to repair this condition is also possible, and is usually quite effective. This rather simple procedure combines the recording or deformity hammertoe straightening (removing small amounts of bone near the toe joints a) and a method of alignment of the toe rotation. Fixing the shooting plastic surgery techniques include re-rotated back around to the skin, or the technique that partially merge with the base of the little toe toe next to keep stable and upright. The plastic surgery technique using skin incision various orientations effectively push back the toes rotated position. The fusion process removes part of the space between the little toe and the fourth toe and stitches together the skin. As it heals, the bases will be the two toes than one. This does not affect the way the foot functions pedestrian and cosmetically hardly noticeable. The end result is a toe that position can not rotate anymore. Recovery is fairly simple, able to return to normal shoes in both the bone and the skin part of the procedure, most people 3-4 weeks. complication rate remains low, and the corrected toe prone position in life.

The curly toe deformities are common, cause discomfort in shoes and yet easy to use. Anyone suffering from this typical toe deformities should see a foot specialist (podiatrist) for evaluation and treatment options to toe.

Source by Scott Kilberg DPM

Property Tax appeals and protests

If you've ever wondered how to put a winning property tax appeal may find the answer below this article where all you ever need to do the numbers and property tax appeals Facts together, authentic and inexpensive to happen. Finally! Get a property tax issue, which shows that the high-precision, how to evaluate your home and show the government what they want to see. Show them the way that ring. The goal of the "right similar adjustments" and you get the appeal to the winners circle. And it does not cost much, especially as the "experts".

Many homeowners professional representation. I'll let these people in negotiations and ask what is to appeal. I get a lot of answers, but the average cost of a lawyer was about my state $ 250 an hour, that they (the attorney and you) should be municipal tax court hearings or present. We do not know when the case is heard. It can be morning or afternoon … the lawyer's meter running.

Cost of initial studies (as a professional appraiser) for about $ 400 (the cheapest they could find was $ 390), plus $ 350 of their appraiser shows up to testify for up to 4 hours (half a day more than anything extra). Still others scour the newspapers and the Internet are able to find any hint of how to crunch the numbers and technology.

The local government used the so-called mass appraisal process value that home. They usually obtain assessment quickly and inefficiently increasingly cheap and fast results. They spend huge sums to catch this for some people to comment without a deck, patio, shed or small building permit.

often the highest priced apartments being used as a gauge value in the area. The simple way is to roll over previous information. Because of incorrect data path of the property record card. While cost (think so) that the tax collection authority, it is not fair that the majority of the homeowners.

Consumer Reports (Nov.1992 v57 zero p.723) announced that property tax records show the error rate is estimated at 40% there are property taxes. The National Taxpayers Union ( "How to Fight Property Taxes" 2004 p.1) says that more than 60% of homeowners over assessed and is not consistent with their own values.

If you win a property tax appeal to win the tax continues to fall year on year savings of property tax assessment – this is not only one shot deal! If you reduce taxes, say, $ 1000 for the year to save yours each year until the next reassessment blankets … which could be another 5, 10, 20 or more years.

The correct vocabulary is to appeal an assessment. Attractive tax is a political issue. If you do not like taxes, protest them! Instead of tax increases is largely nonsense invertebrates government officials who are addicted to spending cost reductions. I live on a budget, and therefore my government! That's it.

in the village of Skokie, Illinois kept his promise to the flat tax as & # 39; 90th It can be done!

This was no surprise to Skokie trustees promised in 1990 to hold the line of taxes. What is surprising is that the promise still stands. The village council voted on Monday is scheduled for the 2006 tax levy to raise $ 15.5 million, the same amount by 1990.

This 16 consecutive years without a new property tax. It was the village will only increase the tax year specified by inflation, the consumer price index, Skokie 2006 tax levy would be $ 23.3 million, said Robert Nowak, Chief Financial Officer.

It can be done! Budgeting is done then the community?

Source by George Evergeht

CBet What is poker?

You may have heard the term before CBet in poker, but do not know exactly what it means. The CBet not poker rules, but it is a common strategy. Well CBet a continuation bet is that if you bet on the flop has been raised before the flop, so – to continue. You simply keep track of their wager with another bet. This usually represent a strong hand.

CBetting one of the most common types of betting strategies, often because of this situation and are looking for more value in the long term, while in the hands of their opponents, and the pot. CBet a typical value of 1/2 and 2/3 the size of the pot. CBets a fairly high success rate, especially against an opponent. So let's look at a typical situation CBet.

10/20 in the early stages of the blinds folded to you and the middle-late position single table sit and go, decides to open the lift KTos. So that it go to 60 chips. Everyone, including the small blind folds her hands in obvious power, except the big blind, who called for another 40 to 130 chips in the pot altogether. Here comes flop, which is flat and straight chemistry. The opponent who acts first chooses to check for you. Now, because the body, which is a diagram of where you choose to bet 2/3 pot, which is about 85 chips, so the bank is now 215. This bet is a continuation bet textbook.

Now let's turn the game around, and instead of your opponent checks, really led the bet 85 is not a continuation bet, since he was the one who called the bet before the flop. He also denied that CBet, although it is always possible to call or re-strengthening. Since the early stages of this sit and go tournaments and little investment in the bank, you probably do instead of KT call or bluff here.

play fairly standard C-Bet against an opponent, because if you represented strength before the flop, after the flop can not reasonably be the same. However, several opponents of the CBet more risk and is liable to not more frequently. For example, if you had three callers preflop this hand you're quite a small chance that the pot when the flop, especially if you are only betting king high.

Here are some tips for keeping your CBets profitable. The type of players called pre-flop bet. Make CBets smaller, less if you want to gamble or if you happen to flop a huge hand. Also, look to the true value of your hand built pots smaller steps against loose aggressive opponents. These players, who are most likely to back it up, if you have a strong hand.

To learn more about c-bet, watch how other players do, even if not on hand. paying attention to the more experienced players get much more familiar with the game and develop a keen understanding of the rules of poker.

Source by Marty Smith

Ignite dreams Prayer Power!

Lights turn your dreams come true power of prayer!

How to use the power of faith and prayer?

It is quite simple. Whatever religion or belief system, just ask your Maker, Universe, Life Force, Sub-conscious, or whatever you want to call what you want, because you can get, and relax in the knowledge that your prayer or supplication is answers. The secret is that absolute faith and confidence that prayer is a reality to you! This is true.

There puhányoknak enabled

I can not "double-minded". In other words, in this world of things so the skeptics, cynics and people are convinced that the weakness … will definitely not want anything significant value. Do yourself a favor, do not waste time trying to. Because then boldly and confidently I believe will get what you ask in prayer power. Why? Because that is the way the dynamics of the power of faith works.

What if I am not religious?

This is not a problem. This means that it is not a problem if you are a very strong (in yourself) person and knows how to imagine. Successful visualization skills and some practice, but it can be dealt with satisfactorily, if you have the patience. In the past, when I view with great success in real estate in Chicago, Illinois.

I'm currently using the power of prayer, because it is simpler and straight forward. At least for me personally. Do not let the screw semantics here. Hey, if you do not like "spiritual", not a problem.

insight into the theories of quantum physics is developing non-local phenomena such as distant prayer.

Many physicists believe that there exists in the form of a fifth energy (in addition to gravity, electromagnetic energy, and the strong and weak nuclear energy) to work with different principles.

Perhaps many medical and spiritual traditions that represent the life force energy that energy throughout history. This energy is called prana in India and Tibet, the Polynesians mana Yesa Jewish Kabbalistic tradition, oriental medicine, qi, or the Christian Holy Spirit.

had a direct and personal experience gi or chi energy.

Since the second degree black belt Tae Kwon Do, I have had the pleasure of getting up close and personal this "5" energy source.

get very strong energy and harnessing the power of chi. Chi martial artists use to stabilize themselves and will remain in focus. This makes it difficult for opponents "will take you down."

chi found to be useful, if not each Black Belt Testing. I mean, keep an "old man" like me to step in all of these young people that are testing me, something was different.

I speak specifically of the board and break some of these exotic Tae Kwon Do kicks the executive! As breaking the board and not the poor guy holding the board and breaking his leg.

I do "chi" when I sold real estate in Chicago. I do all kinds of sales records, and I do not even know what I'm doing or using.

When all is said and done, I bet a fortune that whatever this seemingly miracle-making process, the updating procedure is the same in any desired name for it. Until then, I'll stick with the power of prayer.

This source of energy is very high in the fifth … Alternative medicine acupuncture as an example.

side note, you can use a series of Future World (www.standgreat.blogspot.com) features documented in this energy force. The main character, Carlos Bolivar, martial artist, uses "psykondo" which draws its strength in the "5th Energy Source".

Let me give you a little clue, use any method to Big Time things happen in life, you need a method to excite the imagination. You need to get you hot to go! You have to feel honest to goodness excited to work for you.

just to try to have a certain method because someone says it, does not cut it. Nothing will happen to you. You have to believe in the program and feel real excitement … you need to have the emotional charge! Cheers.

Source by Jack Marinchek

Fire Damage Restoration – Restore to restore domestic and Life After The Fire

Professional fire damage experts have had experience in many residential fires. They will be able to make a quick check and give you an estimate of what needs to be improved, what can possibly be saved, and how much time will be needed, and what will be the cost of bringing the case back to the pre-fire.

House fires can truly tragic and frightening experience – you need professionals to assist in the recovery and help you to get a load off your shoulders, and you can get back to normal life much sooner than you think.

24/7/365 – because fires do not remove

The best damage restoration company staff of technicians who are available 24 hours, 7 days a week, the 365 days a year. If you need the services of a fire damage restoration company, you should be able to choose a company with good reputation and putting the health and well-being as the most important.

It should be noted that the fire damage restoration is not an easy task. Entrepreneurs need to use up-to-date equipment and processes, as well as technicians must be trained in the use of machines and tools are technically correct manner. Be sure to inquire about the experience and how long they were in business. Literature provided by customers happy is a big clue that you have found to restore the damage company that meets or exceeds the needs.

specialists and state-of-the-art equipment

These professionals help to prevent further damage to their values ​​and based on years of experience in the home. They remove water, smoke odor, and soot from home and the belongings (if possible). They will help to return to its original, pre-fire in case of real estate. State-of-the-art equipment to restore the home and property, and these professionals can eliminate caused by the smoke and the smell of the fire. Finally, it is to clean and sanitize your home to complete the recovery process.

Fire damage at home is usually an overwhelming tragedy. Invaluable belongings and valuables easily lost from the flames, and smoke and resulting damage. fire damage restoration and cleaning should start as soon as possible after the disaster to help minimize the loss. The professional activities of the restoration company you choose, you may have to rebuild your life much easier task than they have experienced such situations many times and know exactly what to do.

Fire Restoration Specialists can help Insurance Claims

interesting to note that the restoration of fire damage estimates using company send to the insurance company. Initial filing insurance claims promptly is an important step in the healing process of the fire, and many people often ignore this important legislation. Failure to submit the claim early may delay the subsequent payments on time which can be confusing and a big inconvenience when the property is restored. The relevant means of fire damage restoration company to get the insurance claim process moving quickly in the beginning.

Board-Ups, inventory, cleaning and quick service

The tragedy of fire damage can be all-consuming. Emergency services such as emergency care up to the property, pack-out, quick cleaning of the clothes line, computerized inventory of all personal property is actually speeds up the recovery process of the fire. Often, these services can be offered direct billing to insurance carriers. Prompt and courteous service professional should be part of the restoration of the fire package.

Source by Theodore Grant

Cosmetic Surgery – Frequently Asked Questions

Q. How is it different cosmetic surgery plastic surgery?

A. Although both methods are intended to improve the patient's body, that various guiding principles. It focuses on improving the appearance of cosmetic surgery through the patient's medical and surgical techniques. It can be done in any area of ​​the neck, head and body. Since the normal function of the treated areas, but the lack of aesthetics, this process is not required.

Plastic surgery focuses on the reconstruction of defects of the face and burns caused by the body, birth defects, disease and trauma. This procedure, which is reconstructive in nature, designed to improve the dysfunctional parts of the body.

Q. If cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery two different specialties, such as why there is one?

A. It is important to keep in mind that the "cosmetic surgery" and "plastic surgery" are not interchangeable. First confusing these terms has a misunderstanding of two different specialties. Cosmetic surgery is known as the "surgical look." This optional method focuses on aesthetics.

Q. What is the difference between teaching a cosmetic surgeon and a plastic surgeon?

A different procedure both goals and results, including cosmetic surgeons and plastic surgeons across the different types of training.

The cosmetic surgery is not associated with any resident programs. For this reason, doctors in practice educational background than going through medical school, company and / or specialized surgery residency program may then obtain board certification in a particular area of ​​specialty residency training plus the post. They can do this through scholarship programs in this field, and with the help of lectures, seminars and workshops. Doctors that much experience in this area certified by the American Board of Cosmetic Surgery (ABCS or) that recognizes the strict standards to guarantee expertise and proficiency.

The plastic surgeons go through a similar journey many cosmetic surgeons. On the other hand, after graduating medical school, you become a resident and / or other plastic surgery. After that, you can get certified in the American Board of Plastic Surgery. The plastic surgeon or do not choose to get more training in cosmetic surgery. If you decide on, you get more experience in this area through fellowship training programs, lectures, seminars and workshops, will receive a certificate upon completion of the ABCS requirements.

After the board certification is important when determining the surgical data. The certification boards have very different requirements mentioned above and consider the training and experience of doctors in various fields. It is therefore important for the public and health professionals to recognize the differences. In this way, patients can have selected the right decision for cosmetic or plastic surgeon to perform a procedure. The mission of the American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery, to further improve the safety and quality of special education and patient care focused on the patient.

Source by Karina Popa

Looking for a qualified plastic surgeon

There are many steps that are necessary to be a good plastic surgery results. We need to ensure that expectations are realistic and that the reasons are correct procedure you desire. The next step is to find a qualified plastic surgeon to perform the procedure. This is a critical factor, since health; General safety and satisfaction are at stake. We live in a media world in many ways and ask for information on a given practice, procedure and surgeon. Advertising is present both on the Internet and on TV and radio, but this alone does not provide enough information to make that decision. Look for additional resources, such as friends, relatives and neighbors. If I personally had a good experience with a particular surgeon, it helps to form an opinion.

rumor is one of the most reliable sources of information. This friend, who has a wealth of knowledge will be a good experience. Important questions to ask are: Are you satisfied with the results? If I could do it again made the same choice? Will the plastic surgeon is easy to work with and respond to your needs? In the future, if you want another cosmetic procedure that uses the same plastic surgeon? ask

For more questions to the plastic surgeon the following: Are you board certified, and if so, which testifies to the board? The American Board of Medical Specialties Board of Supervisors has designated the American Board of Plastic Surgery, which is responsible for certifying plastic surgeons. The criteria must be acknowledged that the board at least six years of training following medical school. Two or three years in this post should be in plastic surgery medical school. Upon successful completion of training candidates for the board must pass a written and oral exam pass. That is experienced in this type of procedure? Are your expectations realistic? Do you have photographs previous patients? Where will the surgery be done? What type of anesthesia is it? You will be delivered anesthesia anesthesiologist or a nurse anesthetist doctor? What are the common complications? What happens in an emergency? How long is the recovery process? When I return to work? What are the costs?

A good qualified plastic surgeon never offended by these types of questions. In fact, they are usually hailed as the well-educated patient is an equal participant in the healing process. Do your homework, choose a well-trained plastic surgeon, and that has made a good choice.

Source by Jeff Zwiren

Chess – Why can not ever Get it?

I'm a little paranoid when I see the film is set chessboards and boxes of cheap kits incorrectly. Well, I am looking at the star-studded film & # 39; geese & # 39; again a while back (the one that the British mercenaries sent free of imprisonment in an African country & # 39; & # 39 Nelson Mandela, type), and what I saw one of the last scenes? Stewart Grainger, warming brandy glass funnel shaped hands, looking at the chessboard and moved to one of six inches tall pieces for all the world as if he knew what he was doing. And yes, the body was created by a black square on the right. If you & # 39; d really playing chess (as it was Humphrey Bogart), professional pride would not have allowed him to make the move, while the board was set up properly.

Then the other side of the room with a gun in his hand, Richard Burton quietly announced a two-mate. Clever stuff indeed. In his angle he could not see anything through the forum of the terrible forest, not intended Staunton pieces. & # 39; Who cares? & # 39; & # 39; What does it matter? & # 39; I. It & # 39; It s easy to get something better; You & # 39; ve just got to bother to ask someone who knows. Next time watching The Great Escape look at the orientation of the chessboard, which James Garner and Donald Pleasence plays.

Manufacturers of cheap chess sets go to the expense of printing of cardboard boxes … but always in the wrong direction or the board, or the king and queen of bad squares. I'm the only nit pick who goes loopy this inattention to detail? You do not know anything about these guys selling? You & # 39; d thought to be on average they & # 39; d get it right half the time … but it's not!

I do not really know much about backgammon, but if I wanted to make a backgammon product to the mass market and large amounts of spending in the process, I promise that I & # 39; d ask a few experts backgammon a lot of questions. Why? To ensure that I did wrong instead of right, and so that you do not lose sales presentation of backgammon players that I knew nothing about the game – and that does not care either! There will always be a risk that some potential customers would buy elsewhere. Why does not someone take the time to get it right?

Source by Mike Cuggy

The history of Usage Table

The first conference I attended in May I got several topics to use the newsletters. A session explaining the use of story boards to keep land under the plots and characters consistent and organized. The May The writer T. MacGregor covers the story boards to keep track of the new multi-POV.

I never thought of a story board as the conference speakers, or as suggested in a newspaper article. I use note cards to keep under control character, the details of writing each character a different card. However, I will try ideas on the story board in the future.

To begin with, a card for each character, and a small. Enter your name, physical description, work, likes, dislikes, relationships with other characters, and all the cards.

Even colored note cards for each plot and sub-plot, a different color used to see every point (maybe the same color of the character card). If you run out of available colors, and enter one of the types of vertical and horizontal elements of the other. Remember that the colors are consistent and placements.

A cork board, billboard, or a blank wall operator note cards used. Divide chapters and sections. Once the card is in place, make sure that each chapter contains all the necessary information that is interesting and full of all the necessary components to point to the plot, and the story forward.

Ingredients doing story boards comprising: a large poster board (black or white); more packets color index cards (3 x 5 "to 4 x 6"); scotch tape and colored post-it notes. Colored markers or stickers could be used to color code white note cards.

novel (or stories) can be divided into scenes to organize. A chapter may be one scene, or more than one site. As a drama, a scene of what is happening between certain characters or what the character is doing, and what happens to him. The husband and wife team of writers and co-publishers (Lawrence and Suella Walsh), writing conference first of each scene that May be divided into four parts: a character, motivation, conflict (one of the main conflict or a sub -konfliktus), and resolution, even if only for a transitional period and that the results are good or bad, like a cliff hanger.

he supported the writers write address to the scene of a card or post-it notes, the information that the individual parts of the scene. If the flow of the offense does not work in a certain scene is in place, the note can be moved to another location in the script, which will work better.

TJ MacGregor, the "Try this system to a multi-POV (point of view) the new track" ( The writer May, 2007), breaks the steps down to six (6 ) and a few other points. I'll cover the first six steps, and the thoughts and the author and the Walshes & # 39 ;. All cards or Post-it goes to the poster board (or bulletin board) in the order that the information is displayed or the new story.

* The first card – Content: You need to summarize in a few sentences the idea of ​​the novel. MacGregor says she uses index cards in the brightest he could find and put this card on top of the storyboard. In the past, a large white index card and frame with a bright pink highlighter.

Walshes used the idea of ​​every scene with another card or post-it in the synopsis. MacGregor suggests that the story must have at least three turning points (included in the synopsis): event that triggers the conflict; challenge or conflict twist to land in a new direction; and the climax, which is the end.

* There is a color for each character will use his point of view. The main character will have a different color than the antagonist. Each card's personality and physical characteristics of that character. The appropriate card will be used whenever a character using the POV scene.

Moreover, if you need a card for each character. List the physical description, work, likes, dislikes, personality characteristics – anything that brings the characters to life.

* There is a card in each scene. Take brief notes, enough to set up the components of the scene. You can not use the same color in each scene, or some way to code the different scenes. I use large Post-it Notes for each scene, have written to them to make them higher.

* Set storyboard, where it is easy to see. You need to quickly and easily see where the story is going and be able to get the card and the Post-it anywhere, if necessary.

* The storyboard should be divided into chapters, the story. The Board of Directors determines the structure of the book. If a scene does not work, or POV, you can switch around the cards.

Finally, adapt or tailor the storyboard work for you. Your technique; Do not let technology rule.

Source by Vivian Gilbert Zabel